sorry

How to design a library that makes kids want to read

So there's this thing called the law of unintended consequences. I thought it was just like a saying, but it actually exists, I guess. There's, like, academic papers about it. And I'm a designer. I don't like unintended consequences. People hire me because they have consequences that they really intend, and what they intend is for me to help them achieve those consequences. So I live in fear of unintended consequences. And so this is a story about consequences intended and unintended.

I got called by an organization called Robin Hood to do a favor for them. Robin Hood is based in New York, a wonderful philanthropic organization that does what it says in the name. They take from rich people, give it to poor people. In this case, what they wanted to benefit was the New York City school system, a huge enterprise that educates more than a million students at a time, and in buildings that are like this one, old buildings, big buildings, drafty buildings, sometimes buildings that are in disrepair, certainly buildings that could use a renovation. Robin Hood had this ambition to improve these buildings in some way, but what they realized was to fix the buildings would be too expensive and impractical. So instead they tried to figure out what one room they could go into in each of these buildings, in as many buildings that they could, and fix that one room so that they could improve the lives of the children inside as they were studying. And what they came up with was the school library, and they came up with this idea called the Library Initiative. All the students have to pass through the library. That's where the books are. That's where the heart and soul of the school is. So let's fix these libraries.

So they did this wonderful thing where they brought in first 10, then 20, then more architects, each one of whom was assigned a library to rethink what a library was. They trained special librarians. So they started this mighty enterprise to reform public schools by improving these libraries. Then they called me up and they said, "Could you make a little contribution?" I said, "Sure, what do you want me to do?" And they said, "Well, we want you to be the graphic designer in charge of the whole thing." And so I thought, I know what that means. That means I get to design a logo. I know how to design that. I design logos. That's what people come to me for. So OK, let's design a logo for this thing. Easy to do, actually, compared with architecture and being a librarian. Just do a logo, make a contribution, and then you're out, and you feel really good about yourself. And I'm a great guy and I like to feel good about myself when I do these favors.

So I thought, let's overdeliver. I'm going to give you three logos, all based on this one idea. So you have three options, pick any of the three. They're all great, I said. So the basic idea was these would be new school libraries for New York schools, and so the idea is that it's a new thing, a new idea that needs a new name. What I wanted to do was dispel the idea that these were musty old libraries, the kind of places that everyone is bored with, you know, not your grandparents' library. Don't worry about that at all. This is going to this new, exciting thing, not a boring library.

So option number one: so instead of thinking of it as a library, think of it as a place where it is like: do talk, do make loud noises. Right? So no shushing, it's like a shush-free zone. We're going to call it the Reading Room.

That was option number one. OK, option number two. Option number two was, wait for it, OWL. I'll meet you at OWL. I'm getting my book from the OWL. Meet you after school down at OWL. I like that, right? Now, what does OWL stand for? Well, it could be One World Library, or it could be Open. Wonder. Learn. Or it could be -- and I figure librarians could figure out other things it could be because they know about words. So other things, right? And then look at this. It's like the eye of the owl. This is irresistible in my opinion.

But there's even another idea. Option number three. Option number three was based actually on language. It's the idea that "read" is the past tense of "read," and they're both spelled the same way. So why don't we call this place The Red Zone? I'll meet you at the Red Zone. Are you Red? Get Red. I'm well Red.

(Laughter)

I really loved this idea, and I somehow was not focused on the idea that librarians as a class are sort of interested in spelling and I don't know.

(Laughter)

But sometimes cleverness is more important than spelling, and I thought this would be one of those instances. So usually when I make these presentations I say there's just one question and the question should be, "How can I thank you, Mike?" But in this case, the question was more like, "Um, are you kidding?" Because, they said, the premise of all this work was that kids were bored with old libraries, musty old libraries. They were tired of them. And instead, they said, these kids have never really seen a library. The school libraries in these schools are really so dilapidated, if they're there at all, that they haven't bored anyone. They haven't even been there to bore anyone at all. So the idea was, just forget about giving it a new name. Just call it, one last try, a library. Right? OK. So I thought, OK, give it a little oomph? Exclamation point? Then -- this is because I'm clever -- move that into the "i," make it red, and there you have it, the Library Initiative. So I thought, mission accomplished, there's your logo. So what's interesting about this logo, an unintended consequence, was that it turned out that they didn't really even need my design because you could type it any font, you could write it by hand, and when they started sending emails around, they just would use Shift and 1, they'd get their own logo just right out of the thing. And I thought, well, that's fine. Feel free to use that logo. And then I embarked on the real rollout of this thing -- working with every one of the architects to put this logo on the front door of their own library. Right?

So here's the big rollout. Basically I'd work with different architects. First Robin Hood was my client. Now these architects were my client. I'd say, "Here's your logo. Put it on the door." "Here's your logo. Put it on both doors." "Here's your logo. Put it off to the side." "Here's your logo repeated all over to the top." So everything was going swimmingly. I just was saying, "Here's your logo. Here's your logo."

Then I got a call from one of the architects, a guy named Richard Lewis, and he says, "I've got a problem. You're the graphics guy. Can you solve it?" And I said, OK, sure." And he said, "The problem is that there's a space between the shelf and the ceiling." So that sounds like an architectural issue to me, not a graphic design issue, so I'm, "Go on." And Richard says, "Well, the top shelf has to be low enough for the kid to reach it, but I'm in a big old building, and the ceilings are really high, so actually I've got all this space up there and I need something like a mural." And I'm like, "Whoa, you know, I'm a logo designer. I'm not Diego Rivera or something. I'm not a muralist." And so he said, "But can't you think of anything?" So I said, "OK, what if we just took pictures of the kids in the school and just put them around the top of the thing, and maybe that could work." And my wife is a photographer, and I said, "Dorothy, there's no budget, can you come to this school in east New York, take these pictures?" And she did, and if you go in Richard's library, which is one of the first that opened, it has this glorious frieze of, like, the heroes of the school, oversized, looking down into the little dollhouse of the real library, right? And the kids were great, hand-selected by the principals and the librarian. It just kind of created this heroic atmosphere in this library, this very dignified setting below and the joy of the children above.

So naturally all the other librarians in the other schools see this and they said, well, we want murals too. And I'm like, OK. So then I think, well, it can't be the same mural every time, so Dorothy did another one, and then she did another one, but then we needed more help, so I called an illustrator I knew named Lynn Pauley, and Lynn did these beautiful paintings of the kids. Then I called a guy named Charles Wilkin at a place called Automatic Design. He did these amazing collages. We had Rafael Esquer do these great silhouettes. He would work with the kids, asking for words, and then based on those prompts, come up with this little, delirious kind of constellation of silhouettes of things that are in books. Peter Arkle interviewed the kids and had them talk about their favorite books and he put their testimony as a frieze up there. Stefan Sagmeister worked with Yuko Shimizu and they did this amazing manga-style statement, "Everyone who is honest is interesting," that goes all the way around. Christoph Niemann, brilliant illustrator, did a whole series of things where he embedded books into the faces and characters and images and places that you find in the books. And then even Maira Kalman did this amazing cryptic installation of objects and words that kind of go all around and will fascinate students for as long as it's up there.

So this was really satisfying, and basically my role here was reading a series of dimensions to these artists, and I would say, "Three feet by 15 feet, whatever you want. Let me know if you have any problem with that." And they would go and install these. It just was the greatest thing.

But the greatest thing, actually, was -- Every once in a while, I'd get, like, an invitation in the mail made of construction paper, and it would say, "You are invited to the opening of our new library." So you'd go to the library, say, you'd go to PS10, and you'd go inside. There'd be balloons, there'd be a student ambassador, there'd be speeches that were read, poetry that was written specifically for the opening, dignitaries would present people with certificates, and the whole thing was just a delirious, fun party. So I loved going to these things. I would stand there dressed like this, obviously not belonging, and someone would say, "What are you doing here, mister?" And I'd say, "Well, I'm part of the team that designed this place." And they'd said, "You do these shelves?" And I said, "No." "You took the pictures up above." "No." "Well, what did you do?" "You know when you came in? The sign over the door?" "The sign that says library?"

(Laughter)

"Yeah, I did that!" And then they'd sort of go, "OK. Nice work if you can get it." So it was so satisfying going to these little openings despite the fact that I was kind of largely ignored or humiliated, but it was actually fun going to the openings, so I decided that I wanted to get the people in my office who had worked on these projects, get the illustrators and photographers, and I said, why don't we rent a van and drive around the five boroughs of New York and see how many we could hit at one time. And eventually there were going to be 60 of these libraries, so we probably got to see maybe half a dozen in one long day. And the best thing of all was meeting these librarians who kind of were running these, took possession of these places like their private stage upon which they were invited to mesmerize their students and bring the books to life, and it was just this really exciting experience for all of us to actually see these things in action. So we spent a long day doing this and we were in the very last library. It was still winter, because it got dark early, and the librarian says, "I'm about to close down. So really nice having you here. Hey, wait a second, do you want to see how I turn off the lights?" I'm like, "OK." And she said, "I have this special way that I do it." And then she showed me. What she did was she turned out every light one by one by one by one, and the last light she left on was the light that illuminated the kids' faces, and she said, "That's the last light I turn off every night, because I like to remind myself why I come to work."

So when I started this whole thing, remember, it was just about designing that logo and being clever, come up with a new name? The unintended consequence here, which I would like to take credit for and like to think I can think through the experience to that extent, but I can't. I was just focused on a foot ahead of me, as far as I could reach with my own hands. Instead, way off in the distance was a librarian who was going to find the chain of consequences that we had set in motion, a source of inspiration so that she in this case could do her work really well. 40,000 kids a year are affected by these libraries. They've been happening for more than 10 years now, so those librarians have kind of turned on a generation of children to books and so it's been a thrill to find out that sometimes unintended consequences are the best consequences.

Thank you very much.

 

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How to design a library that makes kids want to read?

Хүүхдүүдэд ном унших хүсэл төрүүлэм номын санг хэрхэн барих вэ?

When Michael Bierut was tapped to design a logo for public school libraries, he had no idea that he was embarking on a years-long passion project. In this often hilarious talk, he recalls his obsessive quest to bring energy, learning, art and graphics into these magical spaces where school librarians can inspire new generations of readers and thinkers.

Майкл Биерүт нийтийн сургуулийн номын сангуудын логог бүтээх үүрэг авахдаа олон жил үргэжлэх, маш их сэтгэл шаардсан төсөл эхлүүлж байгаагаа мэдсэнгүй. Энэхүү хөгжилтэй яриандаа тэрээр номын санчид анхлан уншигчид болон сэтгэгчдэд урам өгөх ид шидийн мэт газарт энерги, ухаарал, урлаг, график нэмж оруулах гэсэн эрэл хайлтынхаа тухай ярьлаа.

So there's this thing called the law of unintended consequences. I thought it was just like a saying, but it actually exists, I guess. There's, like, academic papers about it. And I'm a designer. I don't like unintended consequences. People hire me because they have consequences that they really intend, and what they intend is for me to help them achieve those consequences. So I live in fear of unintended consequences. And so this is a story about consequences intended and unintended.

  Тэгэхээр санаандгүй үр дүнгийн хууль гэж нэг юм байдаг. Би үүнийг зүгээр л хэллэг байх гэж бодсон, гэтэл ийм зүйл үнэхээр байдаг юм байх. Бүр эрдэм шинжилгээний онол хүртэл байдаг. Би дизайнер мэргэжилтэй. Надад санаандгүй үр дүн таалагддаггүй. Хүмүүст хүрэхийг хүссэн үр дүн байдаг болохоор намайг ажилд авдаг, мөн тэдний зорилго нь намайг тэдгээр үр дүнг гаргахад туслуулах. Тиймээс би санаадгүй, зорилгогүй үр дүн гаргахаас айдаг. Энэ бол санаатай ба санаандгүй үр дагаврын тухай түүх.

I got called by an organization called Robin Hood to do a favor for them. Robin Hood is based in New York, a wonderful philanthropic organization that does what it says in the name. They take from rich people, give it to poor people. In this case, what they wanted to benefit was the New York City school system, a huge enterprise that educates more than a million students at a time, and in buildings that are like this one, old buildings, big buildings, drafty buildings, sometimes buildings that are in disrepair, certainly buildings that could use a renovation. Robin Hood had this ambition to improve these buildings in some way, but what they realized was to fix the buildings would be too expensive and impractical. So instead they tried to figure out what one room they could go into in each of these buildings, in as many buildings that they could, and fix that one room so that they could improve the lives of the children inside as they were studying. And what they came up with was the school library, and they came up with this idea called the Library Initiative. All the students have to pass through the library. That's where the books are. That's where the heart and soul of the school is. So let's fix these libraries.

  Надаас Robin Hood хэмээх байгууллага тусламж хүсэн холбогдов. Robin Hood нь Нью-Йоркийн гайхалтай хүмүүнлэгийн байгууллага, нэр нь юу өгүүлж байгааг хийдэг. Тэд баян хүмүүсээс авснаа ядууст өгдөг. Энэ удаа тэд нэгэн зэрэг сая гарам сурагчдад хүрч нөлөөлдөг Нью-Йорк хотын боловсролын системд нэмэр оруулахыг хүссэн. Яг үүн шиг байшингууд дотор: хуучин барилгууд, том барилгууд тухгүй барилгууд мөн заримдаа эвдрэлтэй барилгууд, засвар үнэхээр хэрэгтэй газруудад хичээл заадаг. Robin Hood эдгээр барилгуудыг сайжруулах хүсэлтэй байсан ч тэдний анзаарсан нэг зүйл бол барилгуудыг засварлах нь хэт үнэтэй бөгөөд тохиромжгүй байсан юм. Оронд нь тэд аль болох олон барилга сонгон барилга бүрээс ганц өрөөг сонгоод, тэр өрөөгөө засч сайжруулах болсон. Ийнхүү анги дотор сурч буй сурагчдын орчинг сайжруулахаар шийдсэн юм. Ийнхүү тэд номын сангуудыг сонгож, "Номын Сангийн Идэвх" хэмээх санаачлагыг үндэслэсэн юм. Сурагч болгон номын сангаар дамжин явах хэрэгтэй. Тэнд номнууд байдаг. Энд сургуулийн зүрх, үндэс нь байдаг. Тэгэхээр номын сангуудыг засварлая.

So they did this wonderful thing where they brought in first 10, then 20, then more architects, each one of whom was assigned a library to rethink what a library was. They trained special librarians. So they started this mighty enterprise to reform public schools by improving these libraries. Then they called me up and they said, "Could you make a little contribution?" I said, "Sure, what do you want me to do?" And they said, "Well, we want you to be the graphic designer in charge of the whole thing." And so I thought, I know what that means. That means I get to design a logo. I know how to design that. I design logos. That's what people come to me for. So OK, let's design a logo for this thing. Easy to do, actually, compared with architecture and being a librarian. Just do a logo, make a contribution, and then you're out, and you feel really good about yourself. And I'm a great guy and I like to feel good about myself when I do these favors.

  Тэдний хийсэн гайхалтай зүйл нь эхлээд 10, 20, дараа нь бүр олон архитекторуудыг цуглуулж, номын сан гэж юу болохыг бодох даалгавар өглөө. Тусгай номын санчдыг бэлтгэв. Ингээд номын санг сайжруулсны үндсэн дээр улсын сургуулиудыг хөгжүүлэх нүсэр ажиллагаа эхэллээ. Над руу залгахдаа тэд ''Хувь нэмэр оруулж болох уу?'' гэсэн. Би ''Тиймээ, юу хийлгэхийг хүсч байна?'' гэхэд ''Бид таныг бүх зүйлийг хариуцсан график дизайнер болохыг хүсч байна'' гэж надад хэлсэн. Энэ юу гэсэн үг вэ гэдгийг мэдэж байсан. Би лого зохиох хэрэгтэй гэсэн үг. Би яаж хийхээ мэднэ. Би лого хийдэг хүн. Тиймээс л хүмүүс над дээр ирдэг. За тэгээд энэ зүйлд лого зохиоцгооё гээд эхлэв. Хийхэд хялбар л даа, архитектор эсвэл номын санчтай харьцуулвал. Зүгээр л лого бүтээгээд, хувь нэмэр оруулаад ажил дуусаа. Мөн чи өөрөөрөө бахархах болно. Би үнэхээр дажгүй залуу бөгөөд хүнд туслан өөрөөрөө бахархах дуртай хүн.

So I thought, let's overdeliver. I'm going to give you three logos, all based on this one idea. So you have three options, pick any of the three. They're all great, I said. So the basic idea was these would be new school libraries for New York schools, and so the idea is that it's a new thing, a new idea that needs a new name. What I wanted to do was dispel the idea that these were musty old libraries, the kind of places that everyone is bored with, you know, not your grandparents' library. Don't worry about that at all. This is going to this new, exciting thing, not a boring library.

  Тиймээс, би арай илүүг хийе гэж бодсон. Би та нарт энэ нэг санаан дээр тулгуурласан 3 лого үзүүлье. Та нар 3 сонголтоос нэгийг нь сонгоно. Бүгд л маш сайн гэж би хэлсэн. Гол утга нь Нью-Йорк хотын сургуулиуд шинэ номны сантай болно, энэ нь шинэ нэр хэрэгтэй шинэ санаа. Миний хүссэн зүйл бол эдгээр нь хуучирсан, хүмүүс ороод уйддаг номын сан байсанг мартуулж, эмээ өвөөгийн чинь номын сан биш гэж харуулах байлаа. Үүний талаар санаа зоволтгүй. Энэ нь шинэ сэтгэл догдолмоор зүйл бөгөөд уйдмаар номын сан биш.

So option number one: so instead of thinking of it as a library, think of it as a place where it is like: do talk, do make loud noises. Right? So no shushing, it's like a shush-free zone. We're going to call it the Reading Room.

  Тэгэхээр эхний сонголт: Энгийн номын сан гэж бодохын оронд хүмүүс ярилцдаг, чимээ гаргадаг газар гэж бод. "Чшш чимээгүй" гэдэггүй газар. Бид үүнийг Уншлагын Өрөө гэж нэрлэе.

That was option number one. OK, option number two. Option number two was, wait for it, OWL. I'll meet you at OWL. I'm getting my book from the OWL. Meet you after school down at OWL. I like that, right? Now, what does OWL stand for? Well, it could be One World Library, or it could be Open. Wonder. Learn. Or it could be -- and I figure librarians could figure out other things it could be because they know about words. So other things, right? And then look at this. It's like the eye of the owl. This is irresistible in my opinion.

  Энэ эхний санаа байлаа. Одоо 2-р санаа нь. 2-р сонголт бол, хүлээгээрэй, Шар Шувуу. Шар Шувууд уулзъя. Шар Шувуунаас би номоо авна, Сургуулийн дараа Шар Шувуунд тааръя. Надад таалагдаж байна, тиймээ? Тэгвэл энэ юу гэсэн үг вэ? (OWL) Нэг (O) Ертөнцийн (W) Номын Сан (L) эсвэл Нээ (O) Бод (W) Сур (L) эсвэл номын санчид илүү үгийн баялагтай учир ямар нэгэн зүйл бодоод олчих байх. Өөр зүйлс, тиймүү? Үүнийг хардаа, яг л шар шувууны нүд шиг. Энэ миний бодлоор татгалзашгүй.

But there's even another idea. Option number three. Option number three was based actually on language. It's the idea that "read" is the past tense of "read," and they're both spelled the same way. So why don't we call this place The Red Zone? I'll meet you at the Red Zone. Are you Red? Get Red. I'm well Red.

  Гэхдээ дахиад нэг санаа байгаа. 3-р сонголтыг хэл зүй дээр суурилсан. "Уншсан" гэдэг нь "Унших" гэдгийн өнгөрсөн цаг гэсэн санаа, гэхдээ Англиар ижилхэн бичигддэг. Тэгвэл бид энэ газрыг "Уншсан Бүс" гэвэл яасан юм? Ушсан Бүст уулзая. Чи Ушсан уу? Унш л даа. Би сайн уншдаг.

(Laughter)   (Инээд)

I really loved this idea, and I somehow was not focused on the idea that librarians as a class are sort of interested in spelling and I don't know.

  Надад энэ санаа үнэхээр таалагдсан, мөн би нөгөө санаа болох номын санчид үг үсэглэл сонирхдог хүмүүс гэдэгт нэх сонирхолгүй болсон. Мэдэхгүй ээ

(Laughter)   (Инээд)

But sometimes cleverness is more important than spelling, and I thought this would be one of those instances. So usually when I make these presentations I say there's just one question and the question should be, "How can I thank you, Mike?" But in this case, the question was more like, "Um, are you kidding?" Because, they said, the premise of all this work was that kids were bored with old libraries, musty old libraries. They were tired of them. And instead, they said, these kids have never really seen a library. The school libraries in these schools are really so dilapidated, if they're there at all, that they haven't bored anyone. They haven't even been there to bore anyone at all. So the idea was, just forget about giving it a new name. Just call it, one last try, a library. Right? OK. So I thought, OK, give it a little oomph? Exclamation point? Then -- this is because I'm clever -- move that into the "i," make it red, and there you have it, the Library Initiative. So I thought, mission accomplished, there's your logo. So what's interesting about this logo, an unintended consequence, was that it turned out that they didn't really even need my design because you could type it any font, you could write it by hand, and when they started sending emails around, they just would use Shift and 1, they'd get their own logo just right out of the thing. And I thought, well, that's fine. Feel free to use that logo. And then I embarked on the real rollout of this thing -- working with every one of the architects to put this logo on the front door of their own library. Right?

  Заримдаа ухаанлаг байх нь үсэглэхээс илүү чухал бөгөөд үүнийг би тэдгээрийн нэг жишээ гэж бодсон. Ихэнхдээ би илтгэл тавихдаа ганц асуулт байдаг гэж боддог. Энэ нь ''Би яаж талархалаа илэрхийлэх вэ, Маяк?'' Гэхдээ, энэ удаа тавьсан асуулт нь ''Чи тоглоод байна уу?'' байсан. Учир нь тэд хэлэхдээ энэ их ажлын оршил утга нь хүүхдүүд хуучинсаг номын сангаас уйддаг нь гэсэн. Хүүхдүүд бүгд залхсан. Харин эдгээр хүүхдүүд жинхэнэ номын санг харж үзээгүй. Эдгээр сургуулиудын номын сангууд үнэхээр байхгүй болтлоо хуучирсан, тоогдохооргүй юм чинь хэнийг ч уйдаагаагүй. Анхнаасаа л хүн уйдаахаар тэнд байгаа ч гүй. Тэгэхээр шинэ нэр өгөх гэдгээ бүр мөсөн мартах хэрэгтэй. Зүгээр л номын сан гэж нэрлэхэд болно. Тиймүү? За. Би илүү их үзэмж, жавхаа өгөх үү гэж бодсон. Анхаарлын тэмдэг нэмэх үү? Тэгвэл - би ухаалаг учир - үүнийг i руу нь хөдөлгөөд, улаан өнгө оруулаад, ингээд болчихлоо, Номын Сангийн Санаачлага. Тэгээд би даалгавар дууслаа, лого чинь энэ байна гэсэн. Сонирхолтой нь энэ лого бол санамсаргүй үр дүн байсан бөгөөд тэдэнд миний загвар хэрэггүй болж таарсан. Учир нь үүнийг ямар ч фонтоор эсвэл бүр гараараа ч бичиж болно, мөн и-майл явуулж эхлэхдээ shift + 1 дээр дараад өөрсдийнх нь лого хадгалсан газраас нь гараад ирнэ. Тэгээд би за зүгээрээ, миний логог хэрэглэж болно шүү гэсэн. Тэгээд би үүнийг түгээх гэж ажиллаж эхэлсэн, бүх архитектортой уулзан өөрсдийнх нь номын сангийн хаалган дээр энэ логог тавих гэж, тийм үү?

So here's the big rollout. Basically I'd work with different architects. First Robin Hood was my client. Now these architects were my client. I'd say, "Here's your logo. Put it on the door." "Here's your logo. Put it on both doors." "Here's your logo. Put it off to the side." "Here's your logo repeated all over to the top." So everything was going swimmingly. I just was saying, "Here's your logo. Here's your logo."

  Түгээлт нь ямар вэ гэхээр, ерөнхийдөө би өөр өөр архитерторуудтай ажиллана. Эхлээд Robin Hood миний үйлчлүүлэгч байсан бол одоо энэ архитекторууд. Би ''Энэ танай лого, хаалган дээрээ тавь'' ''Энэ лого чинь байна, бүх хаалган дээр тавь.'' ''Энэ танай лого, хажууханд нь тавьчих.'' ''Энэ танай лого, тааз хүртэл бичигдсэн.'' гээд л. Бүх зүйл саадгүй явж байлаа. Би зүгээр л ''Энэ лого чинь байна" гэж хэлж байсан.

Then I got a call from one of the architects, a guy named Richard Lewis, and he says, "I've got a problem. You're the graphics guy. Can you solve it?" And I said, OK, sure." And he said, "The problem is that there's a space between the shelf and the ceiling." So that sounds like an architectural issue to me, not a graphic design issue, so I'm, "Go on." And Richard says, "Well, the top shelf has to be low enough for the kid to reach it, but I'm in a big old building, and the ceilings are really high, so actually I've got all this space up there and I need something like a mural." And I'm like, "Whoa, you know, I'm a logo designer. I'm not Diego Rivera or something. I'm not a muralist." And so he said, "But can't you think of anything?" So I said, "OK, what if we just took pictures of the kids in the school and just put them around the top of the thing, and maybe that could work." And my wife is a photographer, and I said, "Dorothy, there's no budget, can you come to this school in east New York, take these pictures?" And she did, and if you go in Richard's library, which is one of the first that opened, it has this glorious frieze of, like, the heroes of the school, oversized, looking down into the little dollhouse of the real library, right? And the kids were great, hand-selected by the principals and the librarian. It just kind of created this heroic atmosphere in this library, this very dignified setting below and the joy of the children above.

  Тэгээд би нэг архитектороос дуудлага авлаа. Ричард Левис нэртэй залуу ''Надад асуудал байна. Чи графикийн залуу юм чинь шийдэж чадах уу?'' гэсэн. ''Ок, асуудалгүй'' гэлээ. Тэр ''Асуудал бол тавиур болон таазны хооронд зай байна'' гэсэн. Надад график дизайнаас илүү архитекторын асуудал шиг санагдсан. Тэгээд би ''Үргэлжлүүл дээ'' гэхэд, ''Дээд тавиур нь хүүхдүүд хүрч болохоор намхан байх хэрэгтэй. Гэхдээ барилга маань том, хуучин учраас хэт өндөр таазтай. Ийм их зай байгаа болохоор надад ханын зураг шиг юм хэрэгтэй байна'' гэлээ. ''Хүүх, би чинь лого зохиодог хүн. Би бол Диего Ривера шиг зураач биш, би ханын зураг зурдаг хүн биш'' гэж би хэллээ. Тэр ''Гэхдээ чи санаа олж болохгүй юу?'' ''Зүгээр сургуулийн хүүхдүүдийн зургийг аваад зай байгаа газраа тавьбал яаж байна? Бүтэж магадгүй шүү дээ'' гэлээ. Миний эхнэр зурагчин хүн, би түүнд ''Дороти, энд төсөв алга. Чи зүүн Нью-Йоркт ирээд зураг аваад өгөөч?'' гэж асуусан. Тэгээд тэр ирсэн, хамгийн эхэнд нээгдсэн хэдийн нэг болох Ричардын номын санд оронгуут сургуулийн баатруудыг дүрсэлсэн гайхалтай ханын зургууд байгаа. Их том бөгөөд номын сан буюу хүүхэлдэйн байшин руу харсан байдалтай, тиймүү? Шилдэг хүүхдүүдийг удирдлагууд болон номын санч нь өөрсдөө сонгосон. Шууд л номын санд нэг баатарлаг уур амьсгал үүсгэж байсан, доорхи хүүхдүүдийн хүндлэл ба дээрхи хүүхдүүдийн баяр.

So naturally all the other librarians in the other schools see this and they said, well, we want murals too. And I'm like, OK. So then I think, well, it can't be the same mural every time, so Dorothy did another one, and then she did another one, but then we needed more help, so I called an illustrator I knew named Lynn Pauley, and Lynn did these beautiful paintings of the kids. Then I called a guy named Charles Wilkin at a place called Automatic Design. He did these amazing collages. We had Rafael Esquer do these great silhouettes. He would work with the kids, asking for words, and then based on those prompts, come up with this little, delirious kind of constellation of silhouettes of things that are in books. Peter Arkle interviewed the kids and had them talk about their favorite books and he put their testimony as a frieze up there. Stefan Sagmeister worked with Yuko Shimizu and they did this amazing manga-style statement, "Everyone who is honest is interesting," that goes all the way around. Christoph Niemann, brilliant illustrator, did a whole series of things where he embedded books into the faces and characters and images and places that you find in the books. And then even Maira Kalman did this amazing cryptic installation of objects and words that kind of go all around and will fascinate students for as long as it's up there.

Мэдээж бусад сургуулийн номын санчид үүнийг хараад бид ч гэсэн ханын зураг хүсч байна гэсэн. Би за л гэж хэллээ. Миний бодлоор сургууль болгонд ижилхэн зураг байж болохгүй, тэгээд Дороти дахин нэг зураг, мөн дахиад зураг авсан, гэхдээ бидэнд нэмэлт тусламж хэрэгтэй байв. Тэгэхээр би таньдаг Линн Паулэе гэх зураачийг дуудсан. Линн хүүхдүүдийн гайхамшигтай зургууд зурсан. Мөн би Автомат Дизайны Чарлс Вилкин гэх залуу руу залгасан. Тэр гайхалтай зургийн нийлбэрүүд хийсэн. Бидэнд Рафиел Эскүер эдгээр том сүүдэр дүрс зургуудыг хийж өгсөн. Тэр хүүхдүүдтэй ажиллан, тэднээс үгс асууж тэдгээр санаан дээр тулгуурлан ямар нэг замбараагүй төрлийн номон дээрх зүйлсийн дүрст зураг хийж байсан. Петер Аркл хүүхдүүдээс яриа авч тэдний дуртай номын түүх болон сэтгэгдлийг нь ханын зураг болгон тавьсан. Дизайнер Стифан Сагмаястер Юуко Шимизутай хамтарч нэгэн гайхалтай зурагт номны өгүүлбэр бичсэн, ''Шударга хүн болгон сонирхолтой.'' Энэ зураг нь өрөөг битүү тойрдог. Кристоф Ниеманн, маш мундаг зураач их олон зүйлс хийсэн. Тэр хүмүүсийн царай болон номонд гардаг зүйлсийн дүрд номыг орлуулан зурсан. Бүр Майра Калман нэгэн гайхалтай нууцлаг угсралт хийсэн нь эд юмс, үгс болон төрөл бүрийн зүйлс ханан дээр байрлаж байхдаа сурагчидыг гайхшруулдаг.

So this was really satisfying, and basically my role here was reading a series of dimensions to these artists, and I would say, "Three feet by 15 feet, whatever you want. Let me know if you have any problem with that." And they would go and install these. It just was the greatest thing.

Энэ бүгд үнэхээр урамтай байсан, ерөнхийдөө миний үүрэг нь хэмжээсийг бүтээлчдэд хэлж өгөх бөгөөд би тэдэнд ''90:460 см хэмжээнд хүсснээ хий, ямар нэг асуудал байвал надад хэлээрэй'' гэдэг. Тэгээд л тэд эдгээрийг хананд байршуулна. Үнэхээр хамгийн сайхан зүйл.

But the greatest thing, actually, was -- Every once in a while, I'd get, like, an invitation in the mail made of construction paper, and it would say, "You are invited to the opening of our new library." So you'd go to the library, say, you'd go to PS10, and you'd go inside. There'd be balloons, there'd be a student ambassador, there'd be speeches that were read, poetry that was written specifically for the opening, dignitaries would present people with certificates, and the whole thing was just a delirious, fun party. So I loved going to these things. I would stand there dressed like this, obviously not belonging, and someone would say, "What are you doing here, mister?" And I'd say, "Well, I'm part of the team that designed this place." And they'd said, "You do these shelves?" And I said, "No." "You took the pictures up above." "No." "Well, what did you do?" "You know when you came in? The sign over the door?" "The sign that says library?"

Үнэндээ хамгийн гоё нь байж байгаад л надад илгээмжээр өнгөт цаасаар хийсэн урилга ирдэг. ''Та шинэхэн номын сангийн нээлтэнд уригдлаа'' гэсэн бичигтэй. Жишээ нь PS 10 сургуулийн номын сан, дотогшоо нь ороход шаар болон сурагчдын төлөөлөл, хүмүүс илтгэл тавьна, зөвхөн нээлтэнд зориулагдсан шүлгүүд, хүмүүсийг сертификатаар шагнана, бүх зүйл солиотой, зугаатай үдэшлэг мэт байсан. Тиймээс би ийм юманд явах их дуртай байсан. Би тэнд нээх хамааралгүй мэт ингэж хувцаслаад зогсож байхад хэн нэгэн ирээд ''Та энд юу хийж байгаа юм?'' гэхэд би ''Үнэндээ би энэ газрын загварыг гаргасан хүмүүсийн нэг'' гэвэл ''Та эдгээр тавилгуудыг хийдэг юм уу?'' ''Үгүй'', ''Дээр байгаа зургуудыг авсан юм уу?'' ''Үгүй'' ''Тэгээд юу хийсэн юм?'' ''Та орж ирэхдээ харсан уу? Хаалган дээрх тэмдэг?'' ''Номын сан гэсэн тэмдэг үү?''

(Laughter) (Инээд)

"Yeah, I did that!" And then they'd sort of go, "OK. Nice work if you can get it." So it was so satisfying going to these little openings despite the fact that I was kind of largely ignored or humiliated, but it was actually fun going to the openings, so I decided that I wanted to get the people in my office who had worked on these projects, get the illustrators and photographers, and I said, why don't we rent a van and drive around the five boroughs of New York and see how many we could hit at one time. And eventually there were going to be 60 of these libraries, so we probably got to see maybe half a dozen in one long day. And the best thing of all was meeting these librarians who kind of were running these, took possession of these places like their private stage upon which they were invited to mesmerize their students and bring the books to life, and it was just this really exciting experience for all of us to actually see these things in action. So we spent a long day doing this and we were in the very last library. It was still winter, because it got dark early, and the librarian says, "I'm about to close down. So really nice having you here. Hey, wait a second, do you want to see how I turn off the lights?" I'm like, "OK." And she said, "I have this special way that I do it." And then she showed me. What she did was she turned out every light one by one by one by one, and the last light she left on was the light that illuminated the kids' faces, and she said, "That's the last light I turn off every night, because I like to remind myself why I come to work."

  ''Тиймээ, би тэрийг хийсэн!'' тэгээд тэд ''Аан заза. Болж л байвал сайхан ажил'' гэдэг. Эдгээр жижиг нээлтүүд дээр очих үнэхээр урамтай байсан, үл тоомсорлогдож эсвэл басамжлуулсан ч гэсэн, үнэндээ их зугаатай байсан. Тиймээс би эдгээр ажилд оролцсон хүмүүс, зураачид болон зурагчдыг оффис дээрээ уриад, хэдүүлээ нэг тэргээр Нью-Йоркын 5 дүүргээр тойрч хэдийнх нь ард гарч чадахаа үзвэл яасан юм гэж асуусан. Удалгүй ийм номын сангууд 60 болохоор болж бид нэг өдөрт магадгүй 6 номын сан үзэх болсон. Хамгийн сайхан нь эдгээр газруудыг бараг л ажиллуулж, эзэмшиж байсан номын санчидтай уулзаж тэдний хувийн тайзыг өөрчлөн сурагчдаа гайхшруулан, номыг жинхэнэ болгоход нь урих байлаа. Эдгээр явцыг харсан бидний бүгдэд үнэхээр сэтгэл догдлуулсан туршлага болсон. Тэгээд бид бүтэн өдөр номын сан үзээд сүүлийнх дээр нь ирсэн. Өвөл байсан болохоор эрт харанхуй болдог байсан, тэгээд номын санч нь ''Би хаах гэж байна. Та нартай уулзах таатай байлаа. Хүлээгээрэй, та нар намайг гэрлээ унтраахыг харах уу?'' гэсэн. Би ''Тэгье'' гэхэд ''Энийг хийдэг онцгой арга байдаг юм.'' тэгээд тэр надад харууллаа. Түүний хисэн зүйл нь бүх гэрлийг нэг нэгээр нь унтраагаад сүүлийнхийг нь асаалттай орхисон нь хүүхдүүдийн зургийг гэрэлтүүлдэг гэрэл байв. Тэр ''Энэ миний орой болгон хамгийн сүүлд унтраадаг гэрэл, учир нь би ажилдаа яагаад ирснээ санах дуртай.'' гэсэн.

So when I started this whole thing, remember, it was just about designing that logo and being clever, come up with a new name? The unintended consequence here, which I would like to take credit for and like to think I can think through the experience to that extent, but I can't. I was just focused on a foot ahead of me, as far as I could reach with my own hands. Instead, way off in the distance was a librarian who was going to find the chain of consequences that we had set in motion, a source of inspiration so that she in this case could do her work really well. 40,000 kids a year are affected by these libraries. They've been happening for more than 10 years now, so those librarians have kind of turned on a generation of children to books and so it's been a thrill to find out that sometimes unintended consequences are the best consequences.

  Би энэ бүх зүйлийг эхлүүлэхдээ зүгээр л ухаанлаг байж лого хийгээд шинэ нэр гаргах зорилготой байсныг санаж байна уу? Энэхүү санаадгүй эцсийн үр дүнд би гавьяаг нь авахыг хүсч, туршлагаа болгож бодохыг хүссэн ч би чадахгүй. Би зөвхөн урдахь алхмаа л, гар хүрэх газраа л харсан. Гэтэл бүр их хол зайд номын санч хүн бидний ажлын явцад бүтээсэн олон төрлийн үр дүнгээс урам зоригийн эх үүсвэрээ авч байсан. Тэр ажлаа илүү сайн хийх болж. Жилд 40,000 хүүхдүүд эдгээр номын сангуудын нөлөөнд байдаг. Энэ нь арваас илүү жил үргэлжилж байгаа бөгөөд тэдгээр номын санчид хүүхдүүдийг номтой нөхөрлөхөд тусалсан. Тиймээс заримдаа санаандгүй үүссэн үр дагаврууд хамгийн сайхан үр дүн байдгийг олж мэдэх үнэхээр миний сэтгэлийг хөдөлгөсөн юм.

Thank you very much.   Маш их баярлалаа.

 

English-Mongolian side-by-side
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Michael Bierut at TEDNYC
How to design a library that makes kids want to read

Майкл Бирут at TEDNYC
Как создать библиотеку, в которой детям захочется читать

When Michael Bierut was tapped to design a logo for public school libraries, he had no idea that he was embarking on a years-long passion project. In this often hilarious talk, he recalls his obsessive quest to bring energy, learning, art and graphics into these magical spaces where school librarians can inspire new generations of readers and thinkers.

Когда Майкл Бирут взялся за создание логотипа для общественных школьных библиотек, он и понятия не имел, что это было началом захватывающего проекта длинною в несколько лет. В этом полном юмора выступлении он вспоминает, с каким огромным энтузиазмом старался привнести энергию, знание, искусство и графику в те магические пространства, в которых школьные библиотекари могут вдохновлять новые поколения чтецов и мыслителей.

So there's this thing called the law of unintended consequences. I thought it was just like a saying, but it actually exists, I guess. There's, like, academic papers about it. And I'm a designer. I don't like unintended consequences. People hire me because they have consequences that they really intend, and what they intend is for me to help them achieve those consequences. So I live in fear of unintended consequences. And so this is a story about consequences intended and unintended.

  Есть такая вещь — закон непредвиденных последствий. Я думал, это просто высказывание, но он определённо существует. Есть даже научные доклады на эту тему. А я — дизайнер. Мне не по вкусу непредвиденные последствия. Люди нанимают меня, чтобы последствия были предвиденными, и по их мнению, моё предназначение — помочь им их достигнуть. Таким образом, я живу в страхе непредвиденных последствий. И поэтому это история про предвиденные и непредвиденные последствия.

I got called by an organization called Robin Hood to do a favor for them. Robin Hood is based in New York, a wonderful philanthropic organization that does what it says in the name. They take from rich people, give it to poor people. In this case, what they wanted to benefit was the New York City school system, a huge enterprise that educates more than a million students at a time, and in buildings that are like this one, old buildings, big buildings, drafty buildings, sometimes buildings that are in disrepair, certainly buildings that could use a renovation. Robin Hood had this ambition to improve these buildings in some way, but what they realized was to fix the buildings would be too expensive and impractical. So instead they tried to figure out what one room they could go into in each of these buildings, in as many buildings that they could, and fix that one room so that they could improve the lives of the children inside as they were studying. And what they came up with was the school library, and they came up with this idea called the Library Initiative. All the students have to pass through the library. That's where the books are. That's where the heart and soul of the school is. So let's fix these libraries.

  Мне позвонили из компании «Робин Гуд» с просьбой об одолжении. «Робин Гуд» находится в Нью-Йорке. Это благотворительная организация, оправдывающая своё название. Они берут у богатых и отдают бедным. В данном случае они намеревались улучшить школьную систему Нью-Йорка, огромнейшее предприятие, которое обучает более миллиона учащихся одновременно в зданиях подобных этому, старых зданиях, больши́х зданиях, холодных зданиях, иногда ветхих зданиях, зданиях, которые определённо нуждаются в ремонте. Стремлением «Робин Гуда» было восстановление этих зданий, но они осознали, что ремонт — процесс дорогостоящий и непрактичный. Поэтому они решили выбрать самую подходящую комнату в как можно большем числе зданий и отремонтировать ту определённую комнату, чтобы улучшить условия для детей, которые в них учились. И они выбрали школьную библиотеку, у них возникла идея — Инициатива Библиотека. Все учащиеся приходят в библиотеку. Там книги. Там сердце и душа школы. Отремонтируем библиотеки.

So they did this wonderful thing where they brought in first 10, then 20, then more architects, each one of whom was assigned a library to rethink what a library was. They trained special librarians. So they started this mighty enterprise to reform public schools by improving these libraries. Then they called me up and they said, "Could you make a little contribution?" I said, "Sure, what do you want me to do?" And they said, "Well, we want you to be the graphic designer in charge of the whole thing." And so I thought, I know what that means. That means I get to design a logo. I know how to design that. I design logos. That's what people come to me for. So OK, let's design a logo for this thing. Easy to do, actually, compared with architecture and being a librarian. Just do a logo, make a contribution, and then you're out, and you feel really good about yourself. And I'm a great guy and I like to feel good about myself when I do these favors.

  Они поступили замечательно, пригласив сперва 10, потом 20, а потом и больше архитекторов, которым было дано задание переосмыслить назначение библиотеки. Они обучили квалифицированных библиотекарей. Итак, они начали затеяли масштабную реформацию школ через улучшение библиотек. Они обратились ко мне с вопросом: «Не могли бы вы внести небольшой вклад?» Я ответил: «Что от меня требуется?» «Мы хотим, чтобы ты был графическим дизайнером во главе всего проекта». И тогда я подумал, что они подразумевают создание логотипа. Я это умею. Я создаю логотипы. За этим люди ко мне и приходят. Хорошо, сообразим логотип для этого проекта. Лёгкое дело в сравнении с архитектурой или работой библиотекаря. Просто создай логотип, внеси свой вклад, и ты свободен, и будь доволен собой. Я — отличный парень, мне нравится делать такие небольшие одолжения.

So I thought, let's overdeliver. I'm going to give you three logos, all based on this one idea. So you have three options, pick any of the three. They're all great, I said. So the basic idea was these would be new school libraries for New York schools, and so the idea is that it's a new thing, a new idea that needs a new name. What I wanted to do was dispel the idea that these were musty old libraries, the kind of places that everyone is bored with, you know, not your grandparents' library. Don't worry about that at all. This is going to this new, exciting thing, not a boring library.

  Я подумал, сделаю-ка я больше, придумаю три логотипа, основанных на одной этой идее. У вас будет выбор из трёх альтернатив. Все сто́ящие. Основная идея была — новые школьные библиотеки для школ Нью-Йорка, значит и название у них должно быть иным. Я хотел, чтобы библиотеки перестали считаться старыми и затхлыми местами, наскучившими всем, не библиотекой ваших бабушек и дедушек. Не переживайте. Это будет что-то новое и увлекательное, а не скучная библиотека.

So option number one: so instead of thinking of it as a library, think of it as a place where it is like: do talk, do make loud noises. Right? So no shushing, it's like a shush-free zone. We're going to call it the Reading Room.

  Итак, первый вариант: вместо библиотеки представьте себе место, где позволено разговаривать и шуметь. Никаких шиканий, — это зона, где не призывают к тишине. Мы назовём это место — Читальный зал.

That was option number one. OK, option number two. Option number two was, wait for it, OWL. I'll meet you at OWL. I'm getting my book from the OWL. Meet you after school down at OWL. I like that, right? Now, what does OWL stand for? Well, it could be One World Library, or it could be Open. Wonder. Learn. Or it could be -- and I figure librarians could figure out other things it could be because they know about words. So other things, right? And then look at this. It's like the eye of the owl. This is irresistible in my opinion.

  Таковым был первый вариант. Вариант второй. Второй вариант представлял собой. Готовы? Второй был таков — ОУБ [англ. «сова»]. Встретимся в ОУБ. Беру книги в ОУБ. Встретимся после школы в ОУБ. Мне это пришлось по душе. Что скрывается за ОУБ? Может, Одна Универсальная Библиотека, или Открывай. Удивляйся. Бери знания. Или... думаю, библиотекари что-нибудь придумают, так как они знатоки слов. Что-то другое, так? Взгляните. Это глаз совы. По-моему, неотразимо.

But there's even another idea. Option number three. Option number three was based actually on language. It's the idea that "read" is the past tense of "read," and they're both spelled the same way. So why don't we call this place The Red Zone? I'll meet you at the Red Zone. Are you Red? Get Red. I'm well Red.

  Но вот ещё один вариант. Вариант третий. Эта идея была основана на языке. По-английски глагол read «читать» в прошедшем времени пишется, как в настоящем, а произносится как red «красный». Почему не назвать это место Красной зоной? Увидимся в Зоне чтения. Ты читаешь? Давай читать! Я начитан.

(Laughter)   (Смех)

I really loved this idea, and I somehow was not focused on the idea that librarians as a class are sort of interested in spelling and I don't know.

  Я влюбился в эту идею, и мне как-то не приходило в голову, что библиотекари как класс более внимательны к правописанию.

(Laughter)   (Смех)

But sometimes cleverness is more important than spelling, and I thought this would be one of those instances. So usually when I make these presentations I say there's just one question and the question should be, "How can I thank you, Mike?" But in this case, the question was more like, "Um, are you kidding?" Because, they said, the premise of all this work was that kids were bored with old libraries, musty old libraries. They were tired of them. And instead, they said, these kids have never really seen a library. The school libraries in these schools are really so dilapidated, if they're there at all, that they haven't bored anyone. They haven't even been there to bore anyone at all. So the idea was, just forget about giving it a new name. Just call it, one last try, a library. Right? OK. So I thought, OK, give it a little oomph? Exclamation point? Then -- this is because I'm clever -- move that into the "i," make it red, and there you have it, the Library Initiative. So I thought, mission accomplished, there's your logo. So what's interesting about this logo, an unintended consequence, was that it turned out that they didn't really even need my design because you could type it any font, you could write it by hand, and when they started sending emails around, they just would use Shift and 1, they'd get their own logo just right out of the thing. And I thought, well, that's fine. Feel free to use that logo. And then I embarked on the real rollout of this thing -- working with every one of the architects to put this logo on the front door of their own library. Right?

  Но иногда остроумие важнее грамматики, и я думал, что в этом случае так и будет. Обычно во время презентации, я ожидаю только один вопрос: «Как вас отблагодарить, Майк?» Но в этом случае вопрос был скорее таким: «Хм, ты шутишь?» Они сказали, предпосылка всей этой работы состоит в том, что детям надоели старые и пыльные библиотеки. Они от них устали. Наоборот, они сказали, эти дети никогда и не видели библиотеки. Школьные библиотеки в этих школах настолько заброшены, если они вообще есть, что они никому не наскучили. Их как будто не существует, как они могут наскучить. Итак, не нужно придумывать новое имя. Последний вариант: просто назовём её библиотекой. Согласен? Хорошо. Я подумал, хорошо, приукрасим её? Добавим восклицательный знак? После — потому что я смекалистый, — я заострил внимание на букве «i», и окрасил её в красный. Так появилась Инициатива Библиотека. Миссия завершена, вот ваш логотип. Интересно, что этот логотип — результат случайностей, вышло, что логотип особо не нужен, так как его могли напечатать, или даже написать от руки. И когда мы стали рассылать имейлы, просто использовали Shift и 1, они произвели свой собственный логотип. И я подумал, ничего страшного. Пользуйтесь этим логотипом. После я приступил к раскрутке проекта, работая с каждым архитектором чтобы разместить логотип над каждой входной дверью.

So here's the big rollout. Basically I'd work with different architects. First Robin Hood was my client. Now these architects were my client. I'd say, "Here's your logo. Put it on the door." "Here's your logo. Put it on both doors." "Here's your logo. Put it off to the side." "Here's your logo repeated all over to the top." So everything was going swimmingly. I just was saying, "Here's your logo. Here's your logo."

  Это большая работа. Мне пришлось работать с разными архитекторами. Сперва я работал с «Робин Гудом», теперь — с архитекторами. Я говорю: «Вот ваш логотип для входа». «Вот ваш логотип для двух дверей». «Вот ваш логотип. Разместите в стороне». «Вот ваш логотип, повторите отсюда до потолка». Всё шло гладко. Я просто говорил: «Вот ваш логотип».

Then I got a call from one of the architects, a guy named Richard Lewis, and he says, "I've got a problem. You're the graphics guy. Can you solve it?" And I said, OK, sure." And he said, "The problem is that there's a space between the shelf and the ceiling." So that sounds like an architectural issue to me, not a graphic design issue, so I'm, "Go on." And Richard says, "Well, the top shelf has to be low enough for the kid to reach it, but I'm in a big old building, and the ceilings are really high, so actually I've got all this space up there and I need something like a mural." And I'm like, "Whoa, you know, I'm a logo designer. I'm not Diego Rivera or something. I'm not a muralist." And so he said, "But can't you think of anything?" So I said, "OK, what if we just took pictures of the kids in the school and just put them around the top of the thing, and maybe that could work." And my wife is a photographer, and I said, "Dorothy, there's no budget, can you come to this school in east New York, take these pictures?" And she did, and if you go in Richard's library, which is one of the first that opened, it has this glorious frieze of, like, the heroes of the school, oversized, looking down into the little dollhouse of the real library, right? And the kids were great, hand-selected by the principals and the librarian. It just kind of created this heroic atmosphere in this library, this very dignified setting below and the joy of the children above.

  И тут мне позвонил один из архитекторов, по имени Ричард Льюис и сказал: «У меня проблема. Ты графический дизайнер. Поможешь решить?» Я говорю: «Да, конечно». Он мне: «Проблема в том, что осталось пространство между полками и потолком». Для меня это прозвучало, как вопрос к архитектору, а не графическому дизайнеру. Я: «Продолжай». И Ричард говорит: «Верхняя полка должна находиться низко, чтобы дети могли достать, это большое старое здание, потолки расположены высоко, поэтому там образовалась пустота, и нужно заполнить его графикой». Я отвечаю: «Ты же понимаешь, что я дизайнер логотипов. Я не Диего Ривера или типа того. Я не делаю росписи». Тогда он спросил: «Может, ты что-то сообразишь?» «Хорошо, давай сфотографируем школьников и поместим фотографии на пустое место на стене. Может, это сработает». Моя жена — фотограф. Я сказал: «Дороти, денег не предлагают, не возражаешь зайти в школу Нью-Йорка и снять пару фото?» И она согласилась. При входе в библиотеку Ричарда, первую обновлённую библиотеку, грандиозная, почти героическая картина, где огромные школьники смотрят вниз на словно кукольную библиотеку. Ребят отбирали лично школьные директора и библиотекари. Это создало некую героическую атмосферу в библиотеке, порядок внизу и радостные ребята наверху.

So naturally all the other librarians in the other schools see this and they said, well, we want murals too. And I'm like, OK. So then I think, well, it can't be the same mural every time, so Dorothy did another one, and then she did another one, but then we needed more help, so I called an illustrator I knew named Lynn Pauley, and Lynn did these beautiful paintings of the kids. Then I called a guy named Charles Wilkin at a place called Automatic Design. He did these amazing collages. We had Rafael Esquer do these great silhouettes. He would work with the kids, asking for words, and then based on those prompts, come up with this little, delirious kind of constellation of silhouettes of things that are in books. Peter Arkle interviewed the kids and had them talk about their favorite books and he put their testimony as a frieze up there. Stefan Sagmeister worked with Yuko Shimizu and they did this amazing manga-style statement, "Everyone who is honest is interesting," that goes all the way around. Christoph Niemann, brilliant illustrator, did a whole series of things where he embedded books into the faces and characters and images and places that you find in the books. And then even Maira Kalman did this amazing cryptic installation of objects and words that kind of go all around and will fascinate students for as long as it's up there.

Разумеется, увидев это, все остальные библиотекари также захотели расписные стены. Хорошо, сказал я. Я не могу использовать одну и ту же фреску каждый раз, поэтому Дороти сделала ещё фотографию, и ещё одну, но после нам понадобилась помощь, и я позвал мою знакомую художницу Лин Паули, Лин прекрасно изобразила ребят. Я также позвал Чарльз Уилкина из «Автоматического Дизайна». Он придумал потрясающие коллажи. Мы позвали Рафаэля Эсквайера, он создал эти великолепные силуэты. Он работал с ребятами, говорил с ними, и основываясь на этих подсказках, придумал это фантастическое созвездие из силуэтов того, что есть в книгах. Питер Аркл беседовал с ребятами o их любимых книгах, и основываясь на их ответах, запечатлел их там. Стефан Сагмейстер и Йоко Шимицу придумали потрясающую графику в стиле манга: «Тот, кто честен, — интересен». Надпись опоясывает зал. Кристоф Ниманн, отменный иллюстратор, создал целую серию, в которой воплотил книжных героев, пейзажи и места, которые можно найти в книгах. Майра Калман создала изумительную и загадочную инсталляцию из предметов и слов, изображённых по всему периметру и вдохновляющих учащихся, находящихся в библиотеке.

So this was really satisfying, and basically my role here was reading a series of dimensions to these artists, and I would say, "Three feet by 15 feet, whatever you want. Let me know if you have any problem with that." And they would go and install these. It just was the greatest thing.

Это было действительно эффективно. Я же по сути задавал параметры для работы этих художников. Я говорил: «три фута на 15 футов, делай что хочешь. Дай мне знать, если будут проблемы». В остальном они всё устраивали сами. Просто великолепно.

But the greatest thing, actually, was -- Every once in a while, I'd get, like, an invitation in the mail made of construction paper, and it would say, "You are invited to the opening of our new library." So you'd go to the library, say, you'd go to PS10, and you'd go inside. There'd be balloons, there'd be a student ambassador, there'd be speeches that were read, poetry that was written specifically for the opening, dignitaries would present people with certificates, and the whole thing was just a delirious, fun party. So I loved going to these things. I would stand there dressed like this, obviously not belonging, and someone would say, "What are you doing here, mister?" And I'd say, "Well, I'm part of the team that designed this place." And they'd said, "You do these shelves?" And I said, "No." "You took the pictures up above." "No." "Well, what did you do?" "You know when you came in? The sign over the door?" "The sign that says library?"

Хотя самым потрясающим было то, что периодически мне приходили приглашения на чертёжной бумаге: «Вы приглашены на открытие нашей новой библиотеки». И вы идёте в библиотеку, допустим в PS10, заходите внутрь, а там шары, представитель учащихся, ораторские выступления, стихи, написанные специально по случаю открытия, почётные гости выдают сертификаты, — всё это одна невероятный, весёлый праздник. Мне нравились эти мероприятия. Я стоял там, одетый вот так, определённо не вписываясь, бывало кто-то спрашивал: «Что вы здесь делаете, мистер?» Я отвечал: «Видите ли, я член команды, кто придумал это место». Меня спрашивали: «Ты смастерил пóлки?» Я отвечал: «Нет». «Вы — автор этих фото на верху?» «Нет». «Так что же вы сделали?» «Вы когда входили, не заметили надпись на двери?» «Та что — Библиотека?»

(Laughter) (Смех)

"Yeah, I did that!" And then they'd sort of go, "OK. Nice work if you can get it." So it was so satisfying going to these little openings despite the fact that I was kind of largely ignored or humiliated, but it was actually fun going to the openings, so I decided that I wanted to get the people in my office who had worked on these projects, get the illustrators and photographers, and I said, why don't we rent a van and drive around the five boroughs of New York and see how many we could hit at one time. And eventually there were going to be 60 of these libraries, so we probably got to see maybe half a dozen in one long day. And the best thing of all was meeting these librarians who kind of were running these, took possession of these places like their private stage upon which they were invited to mesmerize their students and bring the books to life, and it was just this really exciting experience for all of us to actually see these things in action. So we spent a long day doing this and we were in the very last library. It was still winter, because it got dark early, and the librarian says, "I'm about to close down. So really nice having you here. Hey, wait a second, do you want to see how I turn off the lights?" I'm like, "OK." And she said, "I have this special way that I do it." And then she showed me. What she did was she turned out every light one by one by one by one, and the last light she left on was the light that illuminated the kids' faces, and she said, "That's the last light I turn off every night, because I like to remind myself why I come to work."

  «Да, я её придумал!» После они подмечали: «Круто, мне бы такую работу». Было очень приятно ходить на эти мероприятия, даже не смотря на то, что меня или не замечали или высмеивали, в целом было весело. И я подумал, а не пригласить ли мне людей к себе в офис, проектировщиков, художников и фотографов. Я предложил арендовать фургон и проехать по пяти районам Нью-Йорка посетить как можно больше библиотек за раз. В итоге получилось 60 библиотек, и мы наверняка посетили шесть за один долгий день. Приятнее всего было лично увидеть библиотекарей, заведующих этими местами и их сокровищами, словно их пригласили на сцену заворожить учеников и оживить книги. Нам было невероятно волнительно увидеть всё это в реальности. Так мы провели целый день, и вот приехали в последнюю библиотеку. Была зима, темнело рано, и библиотекарь сказала: «Мы скоро закрываемся. Спасибо огромное, что зашли. Секундочку, не хотите посмотреть, как я выключаю свет?» Я ответил: «Хочу». Она сказала: «У меня особый способ». И продемонстрировала его. Она выключала каждую лампу, одну за другой, а последнюю оставила включённой и та освещала лица ребят. Она сказала: «Каждый вечер эту я выключаю последней, мне нравится напоминать себе, зачем я работаю».

So when I started this whole thing, remember, it was just about designing that logo and being clever, come up with a new name? The unintended consequence here, which I would like to take credit for and like to think I can think through the experience to that extent, but I can't. I was just focused on a foot ahead of me, as far as I could reach with my own hands. Instead, way off in the distance was a librarian who was going to find the chain of consequences that we had set in motion, a source of inspiration so that she in this case could do her work really well. 40,000 kids a year are affected by these libraries. They've been happening for more than 10 years now, so those librarians have kind of turned on a generation of children to books and so it's been a thrill to find out that sometimes unintended consequences are the best consequences.

  Когда я всё это затеял, — помните, сначала это был просто логотип, — я проявил смекалку и придумал новое имя. Но непредвиденные обстоятельства — я хотел бы считать их своей заслугой и хотел бы так оценить этот опыт, но не могу. Я просто фокусировался на ближайшем шаге, на том, до чего мог дотянуться. А где-то вдалеке были библиотекари, которые распутают цепочку последствий, которые мы запустили, источник вдохновения, чтобы они могли выполнять свою работу действительно хорошо. 40 000 ребят в год ходят в эти библиотеки. С тех пор прошло уже 10 лет, те библиотекари познакомили с книгами новое поколение ребят. Было волнительно обнаружить, что непредвиденные обстоятельства иногда бывают к лучшему.

Thank you very much.   Большое спасибо.

 

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Michael Bierut at TEDNYC
How to design a library that makes kids want to read

ไมเคิล เบรุต (Michael Bierut) at TEDNYC
จะออกแบบห้องสมุดอย่างไรเพื่อทำให้เด็กอยากอ่านหนังสือ

So there's this thing called the law of unintended consequences. I thought it was just like a saying, but it actually exists, I guess. There's, like, academic papers about it. And I'm a designer. I don't like unintended consequences. People hire me because they have consequences that they really intend, and what they intend is for me to help them achieve those consequences. So I live in fear of unintended consequences. And so this is a story about consequences intended and unintended.

  มันมีสิ่งที่เรียกว่า กฎแห่งผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ได้จงใจ ผมเคยคิดว่ามันเป็นแค่คำพูด แต่ผมเดาว่ามันคงมีอยู่จริง ๆ มีรายงานทางวิชาการที่เกี่ยวกับเรื่องนี้ แต่ว่าผมเป็นนักออกแบบ ผมไม่ชอบผลลัพธ์ที่มาจากความไม่จงใจ ผู้คนจ้างผมเพราะว่า พวกเขาต้องการผลลัพธ์ที่พวกเขาต้องการจริง ๆ และสิ่งที่พวกเขาต้องการก็คือ ให้ผมช่วยพวกเขาไปจนถึงผลลัพธ์นั้น ดังนั้น ผมจึงกลัวผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ได้จงใจ และนี่คือเรื่องราวเกี่ยวกับผลลัพธ์ ที่เกิดขึ้นโดยความจงใจและไม่จงใจ

I got called by an organization called Robin Hood to do a favor for them. Robin Hood is based in New York, a wonderful philanthropic organization that does what it says in the name. They take from rich people, give it to poor people. In this case, what they wanted to benefit was the New York City school system, a huge enterprise that educates more than a million students at a time, and in buildings that are like this one, old buildings, big buildings, drafty buildings, sometimes buildings that are in disrepair, certainly buildings that could use a renovation. Robin Hood had this ambition to improve these buildings in some way, but what they realized was to fix the buildings would be too expensive and impractical. So instead they tried to figure out what one room they could go into in each of these buildings, in as many buildings that they could, and fix that one room so that they could improve the lives of the children inside as they were studying. And what they came up with was the school library, and they came up with this idea called the Library Initiative. All the students have to pass through the library. That's where the books are. That's where the heart and soul of the school is. So let's fix these libraries.

  ผมได้รับการติดต่อจากองค์กร ที่ชื่อว่า โรบิน ฮู้ด ให้ช่วยเหลือพวกเขา โรบิน ฮู้ด ตั้งอยู่ในนิวยอร์ก มันเป็นองค์การการกุศลที่ยอดเยี่ยม ซึ่งทำในสิ่งทึ่เป็นอย่างในชื่อนั่นแหละ พวกเขาเอาเงินจากคนรวยไปแบ่งให้คนจน ในกรณีนี้ พวกเขาต้องการทำประโยชน์ ให้กับระบบโรงเรียนของนิวยอร์ก โครงการขนาดใหญ่ที่ให้การศึกษา กับนักเรียนมากกว่าล้านคนในคราวหนึ่ง ๆ และในตึกอื่น ๆ ที่เหมือนกับตึกนี้ ตึกเก่า, ตึกใหญ่ ตึกที่ลมผ่านทะลุได้, ตึกที่อยู่ในสภาวะชำรุดทรุดโทรม แน่นอนว่าพวกมัน เป็นตึกที่สามารถปรับปรุงให้ดีขึ้นได้ โรบิน ฮู้ด มีความทะเยอทะยาน ที่จะพัฒนาตึกเหล่านี้ในบางแง่มุม แต่สิ่งที่พวกเขาตระหนักได้คือ การซ่อมตึกนั้นแพงเกินไป และไม่สมเหตุสมผลในทางปฏิบัติ แทนที่จะทำอย่างนั้นพวกเขาพยายามหา สักห้องหนึ่งในตึกแต่ละตึก ที่พวกเขาอาจเข้าถึงได้ ให้มากตึกที่สุดที่พวกเขาจะทำได้ และซ่อมห้องห้องนั้น เพื่อที่พวกเขาจะสามารถ พัฒนาชีวิตของเด็กในห้องเหล่านั้น ในขณะที่พวกเขากำลังเรียนอยู่ได้ และสิ่งที่พวกเขาคิดได้ก็คือ ห้องสมุดของโรงเรียน และพวกเขาก็มีแนวคิดที่เรียกว่า ห้องสมุดแห่งความการริเริ่ม นักเรียนทุกคนต้องผ่านห้องสมุดนั้น และนั่นคือที่ที่มีหนังสืออยู่ และนั่นคือที่อยู่ของหัวใจและ จิตวิญญาณของโรงเรียน ดังนั้นมาเริ่มซ่อมห้องสมุดเหล่านี้กันเถอะ

So they did this wonderful thing where they brought in first 10, then 20, then more architects, each one of whom was assigned a library to rethink what a library was. They trained special librarians. So they started this mighty enterprise to reform public schools by improving these libraries. Then they called me up and they said, "Could you make a little contribution?" I said, "Sure, what do you want me to do?" And they said, "Well, we want you to be the graphic designer in charge of the whole thing." And so I thought, I know what that means. That means I get to design a logo. I know how to design that. I design logos. That's what people come to me for. So OK, let's design a logo for this thing. Easy to do, actually, compared with architecture and being a librarian. Just do a logo, make a contribution, and then you're out, and you feel really good about yourself. And I'm a great guy and I like to feel good about myself when I do these favors.

  พวกเขาเริ่มทำสิ่งที่น่าเหลื่อเชื่อนี้ ในที่ซี่งพวกเขานำสถาปนิกเข้าไป ตอนแรก 10 คน และ 20 คน และหลังจากนั้นก็มากกว่านั้น แต่ละคนได้รับหมอบหมาย ให้ไปคิดมาใหม่ว่าห้องสมุดคืออะไร พวกเขาฝึกอบรมบรรณารักษ์พิเศษ พวกเขาจึงเริ่มโครงการขนาดใหญ่นี้ เพื่อปฏิรูปโรงเรียนรัฐ ด้วยการพัฒนาห้องสมุดเหล่านี้ หลังจากนั้น พวกเขาเรียกผมมา และพูดว่า "คุณพอจะช่วยอะไรบ้างได้ไหม" ผมพูดว่า "แน่นอน คุณอยากให้ผมทำอะไรล่ะ" และพวกเขาพูดว่า "เราอยากให้คุณเป็นกราฟฟิคดีไซเนอร์ ที่มีหน้าที่รับผิดชอบทำทุกอย่าง" ดังนั้น ผมก็เลยคิดว่า ผมรู้ว่ามันหมายอะไร นั่นหมายความว่าผมต้องออกแบบโลโก้ และผมรู้ว่าต้องออกแบบมันอย่างไร ผมออกแบบโลโก้ นั่นคิอสิ่งที่ผู้คนต้องการจากผม ดังนั้น โอเค มาออกแบบโลโก้สำหรับงานนี้กัน จริง ๆ แล้วง่ายครับ เมื่อเทียบกับงานสถาปัตย์ และการเป็นบรรณารักษ์ แค่ทำโลโก้, เข้ามามีส่วนร่วม และจากนั้นคุณก็หมดหน้าที่แล้ว และคุณก็จะรู้สึกดีกับตัวเองมาก ๆ ผมเป็นคนดีและผมชอบที่จะรู้สึกดีกับตัวเอง เวลาผมช่วยเหลือคนอื่น

So I thought, let's overdeliver. I'm going to give you three logos, all based on this one idea. So you have three options, pick any of the three. They're all great, I said. So the basic idea was these would be new school libraries for New York schools, and so the idea is that it's a new thing, a new idea that needs a new name. What I wanted to do was dispel the idea that these were musty old libraries, the kind of places that everyone is bored with, you know, not your grandparents' library. Don't worry about that at all. This is going to this new, exciting thing, not a boring library.

  ผมจึงคิดว่า ทำมากกว่าที่สั่งดีกว่า ผมจะให้สามโลโก้ที่ทั้งหมดมาจากไอเดียเดียวกันนี้ ฉะนั้นคุณมีสามตัวเลือก ให้เลือกจากหนึ่งในสามอัน ผมพูดว่า พวกมันทั้งหมดนั้นยอดเยี่ยม ดังนั้น แนวคิดพื้นฐานก็คือ มันจะเป็นห้องสมุดของโรงเรียน สำหรับโรงเรียนในนิวยอร์ก และแนวคิดคือ สิ่งใหม่ ๆ นี้ คือแนวคิดใหม่ ๆ ที่ต้องมีชื่อใหม่ สิ่งที่ผมอยากทำก็คือ ลบแนวคิดที่ว่า มันคือห้องสมุดเก่าเหม็นอับ สถานที่ที่ทุกคนต่างรู้สึกเบื่อหน่าย แบบที่ไม่ใช่ห้องสมุดสมัยคุณยาย ไม่ต้องกังวลกับเรื่องนั้นอีกเลย มันจะเป็นสิ่งใหม่ สิ่งที่น่าตื่นเต้น ไม่ใช่ห้องสมุดที่น่าเบื่อ

So option number one: so instead of thinking of it as a library, think of it as a place where it is like: do talk, do make loud noises. Right? So no shushing, it's like a shush-free zone. We're going to call it the Reading Room.

  ตัวเลือกหมายเลขหนึ่ง แทนที่จะคิดถึงมันในฐานะห้องสมุด คิดถึงสถานที่ที่: พูดคุยได้, ส่งเสียงดังได้ ใช่ไหมครับ ดังนั้นมันจะไม่มีเสียงจุ๊ ๆ เป็นเขตปลอดเสียงจุ๊ ๆ เราจะเรียกมันว่าห้องอ่านหนังสือ

That was option number one. OK, option number two. Option number two was, wait for it, OWL. I'll meet you at OWL. I'm getting my book from the OWL. Meet you after school down at OWL. I like that, right? Now, what does OWL stand for? Well, it could be One World Library, or it could be Open. Wonder. Learn. Or it could be -- and I figure librarians could figure out other things it could be because they know about words. So other things, right? And then look at this. It's like the eye of the owl. This is irresistible in my opinion.

  นั่นคือตัวเลือกที่หนึ่ง โอเค มาดูตัวเลือกตัวที่สอง ตัวเลือกที่สองคือ รอมันก่อน เอาล์ (OWL) ฉันจะไปเจอคุณที่ เอาล์ ฉันจะไปเอาหนังสือของฉันมาจาก เอาล์ นัดเจอกับเธอหลังโรงเรียนเลิกที่ เอาล์ ผมชอบมันนะ ทีนี้ เอาล์ ย่อจากอะไร มันอาจจะเป็น วัน เวิล์ด ไลบราลี่ [ห้องสมุดสากล] หรืออาจจะเป็น เปิดกว้าง. มหัศจรรย์. เรียนรู้. หรืออาจจะเป็น -- และผมก็คิดได้ว่า บรรณารักษ์น่าจะคิดออกว่ามันควรจะเป็นอะไร เพราะพวกเขารู้เรื่องคำอยู่แล้ว ดังนั้นไปที่เรื่องอื่น ๆ กันต่อนะครับ และดูตรงนี้สิครับ มันเหมือนกับตาของ เอาล์ [นกฮูก] ผมคิดว่ามันมีสเน่ห์มาก

But there's even another idea. Option number three. Option number three was based actually on language. It's the idea that "read" is the past tense of "read," and they're both spelled the same way. So why don't we call this place The Red Zone? I'll meet you at the Red Zone. Are you Red? Get Red. I'm well Red.

  แต่มันยังมีอีกแนวคิดหนึ่ง ตัวเลือกที่สาม ตัวเลือกที่สามนั้น จริง ๆ แล้วมาจากเรื่องของภาษา มันคือแนวคิดที่ว่า "เรด" [เคยอ่าน] เป็นรูปอดีตของ "รีด" [อ่าน] และพวกมันทั้งคู่สะกดเหมือนกัน แล้วทำไมเราจะไม่เรียกสถานที่นี้ว่า โซนเรด [สีแดง] ล่ะ ผมจะไปเจอคุณที่โซนแดงนะ คุณสีแดงหรือเปล่า ไปแดงกันนะ ผมนี่แดงดีสุดๆ

(Laughter)   (เสียงหัวเราะ)

I really loved this idea, and I somehow was not focused on the idea that librarians as a class are sort of interested in spelling and I don't know.

  ผมชอบแนวคิดนี้มาก อย่างไรก็ตามผมไม่ได้เน้นไปที่แนวคิด ที่ว่าบรรณารักษ์เป็นพวกที่ ค่อนข้างสนใจในการสะกดคำ และผมไม่รู้เลย

(Laughter)   (เสียงหัวเราะ)

But sometimes cleverness is more important than spelling, and I thought this would be one of those instances. So usually when I make these presentations I say there's just one question and the question should be, "How can I thank you, Mike?" But in this case, the question was more like, "Um, are you kidding?" Because, they said, the premise of all this work was that kids were bored with old libraries, musty old libraries. They were tired of them. And instead, they said, these kids have never really seen a library. The school libraries in these schools are really so dilapidated, if they're there at all, that they haven't bored anyone. They haven't even been there to bore anyone at all. So the idea was, just forget about giving it a new name. Just call it, one last try, a library. Right? OK. So I thought, OK, give it a little oomph? Exclamation point? Then -- this is because I'm clever -- move that into the "i," make it red, and there you have it, the Library Initiative. So I thought, mission accomplished, there's your logo. So what's interesting about this logo, an unintended consequence, was that it turned out that they didn't really even need my design because you could type it any font, you could write it by hand, and when they started sending emails around, they just would use Shift and 1, they'd get their own logo just right out of the thing. And I thought, well, that's fine. Feel free to use that logo. And then I embarked on the real rollout of this thing -- working with every one of the architects to put this logo on the front door of their own library. Right?

  แต่บางครั้งความฉลาดก็สำคัญกว่าการสะกดคำ และผมคิดว่านี่เป็นหนึ่งในตัวอย่างเหล่านั้น ฉะนั้น บ่อยครั้งเมื่อผมนำเสนอผลงาน มันจะมีแค่เพียงหนึ่งคำถาม และคำถามนั้นก็มักจะเป็น "ผมจะขอบคุณคุณอย่างไรดี ไมค์" แต่ในกรณีนี้ คำถามเป็นประมาณว่า "เอ่อ นี่คุณล้อเล่นใช่ไหม" เพราะว่าพวกเขาพูดว่า จุดเริ่มต้นของงานทั้งหมดนี้ คือเด็กเหล่านี้รู้สึกเบื่อ กับ ห้องสมุดเก่าเหม็นอับ พวกเขาเบื่อกับมันแล้ว แทนที่จะเป็นอย่างนั้น พวกเขาบอกว่า เด็กพวกนี้ไม่เคยเห็นห้องสมุดจริง ๆ มาก่อนเลย ห้องสมุดในโรงเรียนเหล่านี้ มันชำรุดทรุดโทรมมาก ถ้าพวกเขาจะยังมีห้องสมุดอยู่ มันก็ไม่ได้ทำให้ใครเบื่อ มันไม่ได้มีอยู่ตรงนั้น เพื่อทำให้ใครเบื่อด้วยซ้ำ ดังนั้นแนวคิดก็คือ ลืมเรื่องการสร้างชื่อใหม่ไปเถอะ แค่พยายามเรียกมันว่าห้องสมุดก็พอ ตกลงไหม โอเค ดังนั้น ผมเลยคิดว่า เอาล่ะ ทำให้มันมีสเน่ห์สักหน่อยดีไหม จุดเครื่องหมายอัศเจรีย์ และ -- นี่เป็นเพราะว่าผมฉลาด เอามันไปแทนที่ "i" ทำให้มันเป็นสีแดง และคุณก็จะได้ ห้องสมุดแห่งการริเริ่ม ถึงตรงนี้ ผมคิดว่าภารกิจเสร็จสิ้นแล้ว นี่โลโก้ของคุณ สิ่งที่น่าสนใจเกี่ยวกับโลโก้นี้ก็คือ ผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ได้จงใจ ซึ่งมันกลับกลายเป็นว่าพวกเขาไม่ได้ต้องการ การออกแบบจากผมด้วยซ้ำ เพราะคุณพิมพ์ด้วยฟรอนต์ไหนก็ได้ คุณจะเขียนด้วยมือก็ได้ และตอนที่พวกเขาเริ่มส่งอีเมลออกไป พวกเขาก็แค่กด ชิฟต์ กับ 1 พวกเขาก็จะได้โลโก้ของตัวเอง ง่าย ๆ อย่างนั้นเลย และผมก็คิดว่า อืม ก็ดีนะ ใช้โลโก้นั้นอย่างอิสระเลย และหลังจากนั้นผมก็เริ่มทำงาน ผลิตป้ายนี้อย่างจริงจัง ทำงานกับทุก ๆ ที่เป็นสถาปนิก เพิ่อจะได้เอาโลโก้นี้ ไปไว้ที่ประตูหน้าของห้องสมุด

So here's the big rollout. Basically I'd work with different architects. First Robin Hood was my client. Now these architects were my client. I'd say, "Here's your logo. Put it on the door." "Here's your logo. Put it on both doors." "Here's your logo. Put it off to the side." "Here's your logo repeated all over to the top." So everything was going swimmingly. I just was saying, "Here's your logo. Here's your logo."

  นี่คือป้ายใหญ่ครับ โดยหลักแล้ว ผมจะทำงานกับสถาปนิกต่าง ๆ ทีแรกโรบิน ฮู้ด เป็นลูกค้าของผม ตอนนี้สถาปนิกเหล่านี้เป็นลูกค้าผม ผมจะพูดว่า "นี่โลโก้ของคุณเอามันไปไว้ที่ประตู" "นี่โลโก้ของคุณเอามันไปไว้ที่ทั้งสองประตู" "นี่โลโก้ของคุณเอามันไปไว้ที่ด้านข้าง" "นี่โลโก้ของคุณเอามันไปไว้ให้ทั่วทางข้างบน" ทุกอย่างเป็นไปอย่างราบรื่น ผมแค่พูดว่า "นี่โลโก้ของคุณ นี่โลโก้ของคุณ"

Then I got a call from one of the architects, a guy named Richard Lewis, and he says, "I've got a problem. You're the graphics guy. Can you solve it?" And I said, OK, sure." And he said, "The problem is that there's a space between the shelf and the ceiling." So that sounds like an architectural issue to me, not a graphic design issue, so I'm, "Go on." And Richard says, "Well, the top shelf has to be low enough for the kid to reach it, but I'm in a big old building, and the ceilings are really high, so actually I've got all this space up there and I need something like a mural." And I'm like, "Whoa, you know, I'm a logo designer. I'm not Diego Rivera or something. I'm not a muralist." And so he said, "But can't you think of anything?" So I said, "OK, what if we just took pictures of the kids in the school and just put them around the top of the thing, and maybe that could work." And my wife is a photographer, and I said, "Dorothy, there's no budget, can you come to this school in east New York, take these pictures?" And she did, and if you go in Richard's library, which is one of the first that opened, it has this glorious frieze of, like, the heroes of the school, oversized, looking down into the little dollhouse of the real library, right? And the kids were great, hand-selected by the principals and the librarian. It just kind of created this heroic atmosphere in this library, this very dignified setting below and the joy of the children above.

  จากนั้นผมก็ได้รับโทรศัพท์จากสถาปนิกคนหนึ่ง ชายที่ชื่อ ริชาร์ด เลวิส และเขาก็พูดว่า "ผมมีปัญหา คุณเป็นคนออกแบบ คุณช่วยแก้ปัญหานี่ได้ไหม" ผมพูดว่า "ได้สิ แน่นอน" และเขาก็พูดว่า "ปัญหาก็คือมันมีช่องว่าง ระหว่างชั้นวางกับเพดาน" นั่นฟังดูเหมือนปัญหาทางสถาปัตยกรรมสำหรับผม ไม่ใช่ปัญหาด้านการออกแบบ ผมก็เลยตอบไปว่า "แล้วไงต่อ" และริชาร์ดบอกว่า "ชั้นบนสุดต้องต่ำมากพอ ที่จะให้เด็กเอื้อมถึงได้ แต่ผมอยู่ในตึกเก่าขนาดใหญ่ และเพดานก็สูงมาก ผมก็เลยมีช่องว่างข้างบนนี้ และผมอยากได้อะไรที่เป็นภาพวาดบนผนัง" และผมก็แบบ "โว้ว คุณก็รู้ว่าผมเป็นนักออกแบบโลโก้นะ ผมไม่ใช่ ดิเอโก ริเวรา หรืออะไรแบบนั้น ผมไม่ใช่ช่างเขียนภาพฝาผนัง" จากนั้นเขาก็พูดว่า "แต่คุณพอจะคิดอะไรหน่อยไม่ได้เหรอ" ผมก็เลยพูดว่า "โอเค จะเป็นไงถ้าเราลองถ่ายรูปเด็ก ๆ ในโรงเรียน แล้วก็ติดมันรอบ ๆ ข้างบนนั่น บางทีมันอาจจะใช้ได้ก็ได้นะ" และภรรยาของผมก็เป็นช่างถ่ายรูป ผมบอกกับเธอว่า "โดโรธี เราไม่มีเงินงบนะ เธอจะพอมาที่โรงเรียนที่นิวยอร์กตะวันออก และถ่ายรูปพวกนี้ได้ไหม" แล้วเธอก็ทำ และถ้าคุณไปที่ห้องสมุดริชาร์ด ซึ่งมันเป็นที่แรก ๆ ที่เปิด มันมีรูปภาพอันงดงาม เหมือนกับเป็นฮีโร่ของโรงเรียนนี้ มีขนาดใหญ่กว่าของจริง มองลงมา ในบ้านตุ็กตาขนาดเล็กของห้องสมุดจริง เด็กพวกนั้นยอดเยี่ยม พวกเขาถูกคัดเลือกมาอย่างดีจากอาจารย์ใหญ่ และบรรณารักษ์ มันค่อนข้างสร้างบรรยากาศของฮีโร่ในห้องสมุด สถานที่เบื้องล่างที่ดูสง่างาม และความสดใสของเด็ก ๆ ตรงข้างบนนี้

So naturally all the other librarians in the other schools see this and they said, well, we want murals too. And I'm like, OK. So then I think, well, it can't be the same mural every time, so Dorothy did another one, and then she did another one, but then we needed more help, so I called an illustrator I knew named Lynn Pauley, and Lynn did these beautiful paintings of the kids. Then I called a guy named Charles Wilkin at a place called Automatic Design. He did these amazing collages. We had Rafael Esquer do these great silhouettes. He would work with the kids, asking for words, and then based on those prompts, come up with this little, delirious kind of constellation of silhouettes of things that are in books. Peter Arkle interviewed the kids and had them talk about their favorite books and he put their testimony as a frieze up there. Stefan Sagmeister worked with Yuko Shimizu and they did this amazing manga-style statement, "Everyone who is honest is interesting," that goes all the way around. Christoph Niemann, brilliant illustrator, did a whole series of things where he embedded books into the faces and characters and images and places that you find in the books. And then even Maira Kalman did this amazing cryptic installation of objects and words that kind of go all around and will fascinate students for as long as it's up there.

โดยธรรมชาติ เมื่อบรรณารักษ์ที่โรงเรียนอื่นมาพบเห็นมัน พวกเขาก็พูดว่า เราต้องการภาพวาดบนฝาผนังเหมือนกัน และผมก็แบบ โอเค จากนั้นผมก็คิดว่า โอเค มันเป็นภาพฝาผนังแบบเดิมทุกครั้งไม่ได้ โดโรธีก็เลยทำอีกอัน และจากนั้นเธอก็ทำอีกอัน แต่เราต้องการความช่วยเหลือมากกว่านี้ ดังนั้นผมจึงเรียกนักวาดภาพประกอบที่ผมรู้จัก เขามีชื่อว่า ลินน์ พอลลี และลินน์ก็วาดรูปสวย ๆ ให้กับเด็กเหล่านี้ จากนั้นผมเรียก ชาร์ลส์ วิลกิ้น ให้ทำงานที่สถานที่ที่เรียกว่า ออโตเมติก ดีไซน์ เขาก็ทำภาพปะติดอันน่าทึ่งเหล่านี้ เรามี ราฟาเอล อีสไควเออร์ ที่ทำภาพเงาที่ยอดเยี่ยมเหล่านี้ เขาทำงานกับเด็ก ๆ ขอความเห็นจากพวกเขา และใช้สิ่งที่ได้จากแรงบันดาลใจเหล่านั้น สร้างสรรค์เป็นงาน ที่คล้ายกับกลุ่มดาวเล็ก ๆ ที่ดูบ้าคลั่ง ของรูปเงาของสิ่งที่อยู่ในหนังสือ ปีเตอร์ อาเคิล สัมภาษณ์เด็ก ๆ และให้พวกเขาพูดเกี่ยวกับหนังสือเล่มโปรด และเขาก็นำคำพูดของเด็ก ๆ ขึ้นเป็นภาพสลักข้างบนนั้น สเตฟาน แซคไมส์เตอร์ ทำงานกับยูโกะ ชิมิซุ และพวกเขาก็ทำข้อความแบบแนวการ์ตูนมังงะ "ทุกคนที่ซื่อสัตย์นั้นล้วนแต่น่าสนใจ" ซึ่งไปวางตัวไปโดยรอบ คริสตอร์ฟ นีแมนน์ นักวาดภาพประกอบที่ยอดเยี่ยม ทำงานมากมายเหล่านี้ ที่ซึ่งเขาทำการฝังหนังสือ เข้าไปในหน้าและในตัวละคร และในรูปภาพและในสถานที่ที่คุณเจอในหนังสือ และแม้กระทั่ง มาเรีย คาลแมน ก็ติดตั้งวัตถุและคำพูด ที่แฝงความหมายซ่อนเร้นอันน่าทึ่งเหล่านี้ ซึ่งมีอยู่รอบ ๆ และทำให้นักเรียนตื่นตาตื่นใจ ตราบใดที่มันยังอยู่ข้างบนนี้

So this was really satisfying, and basically my role here was reading a series of dimensions to these artists, and I would say, "Three feet by 15 feet, whatever you want. Let me know if you have any problem with that." And they would go and install these. It just was the greatest thing.

มันน่าพึงพอใจมาก ๆ ครับ และโดยหลักแล้ว หน้าที่ของผมก็คือ เข้าใจมิติต่าง ๆ ของศิลปินเหล่านี้ และผมจะบอกว่า "สามฟุตคูณสิบห้าฟุต เอาที่คุณสบายใจเลย ถ้าคุณมีปัญหาอะไรก็บอกผมด้วยแล้วกัน" และพวกเขาก็จะไปติดตั้งงานพวกนี้ มันเป็นสิ่งที่ยอดเยี่ยมที่สุด

But the greatest thing, actually, was -- Every once in a while, I'd get, like, an invitation in the mail made of construction paper, and it would say, "You are invited to the opening of our new library." So you'd go to the library, say, you'd go to PS10, and you'd go inside. There'd be balloons, there'd be a student ambassador, there'd be speeches that were read, poetry that was written specifically for the opening, dignitaries would present people with certificates, and the whole thing was just a delirious, fun party. So I loved going to these things. I would stand there dressed like this, obviously not belonging, and someone would say, "What are you doing here, mister?" And I'd say, "Well, I'm part of the team that designed this place." And they'd said, "You do these shelves?" And I said, "No." "You took the pictures up above." "No." "Well, what did you do?" "You know when you came in? The sign over the door?" "The sign that says library?"

แต่สิ่งที่ยอดเยี่ยมที่สุด จริง ๆ แล้วก็คือ -- ก็มีเป็นบางครั้งบางคราว ที่ผมได้รับบัตรเชิญจากจดหมาย ซึ่งทำจากกระดาษสีน้ำตาล และมันเขียนว่า "คุณได้รับเชิญ ให้ไปงานเปิดตัวห้องสมุดใหม่ของเรา" คุณก็จะไปที่ห้องสมุด คุณจะไปพีเอสเท็น (PS10) และคุณจะเข้าไปข้างใน ในนั้นจะมีพวกลูกโป่ง มีตัวแทนนักเรียน มีการอ่านสุนทรพจน์ บทกลอนถูกแต่งขึ้นเป็นพิเศษเพื่องานเปิดตัว บุคคลสำคัญจะมามอบประกาศนียบัตร และทั้งหมดนั้นก็น่าตื่นเต้นมาก เป็นปาร์ตื้ที่สนุกสนาน ผมจึงรักที่จะไปงานแบบนี้ ผมจะแต่งตัวแบบนี้ และยืนอยู่แบบเก้ ๆ กัง ๆ และบางคนก็จะพูดว่า "คุณมาทำอะไรที่นี่เหรอ" ผมก็จะตอบว่า "คือ ผมเป็นส่วนหนึ่ง ของคณะทำงานที่ออกแบบที่นี่ครับ" และพวกเขาก็จะพูดว่า "คุณทำชั้นเหล่านี้เหรอ" ผมพูดว่า "เปล่าครับ" "คุณถ่ายรูปข้างบนนั้นเหรอ" "เปล่า" "แล้วคุณทำอะไรล่ะ" "คุณสังเกตหรือเปล่าครับ ตอนที่คุณเข้ามาน่ะ" "สัญลักษณ์ตรงประตูน่ะครับ" "สัญลักษณ์ที่เขียนว่าห้องสมุดน่ะหรอ"

(Laughter) (เสียงหัวเราะ)

"Yeah, I did that!" And then they'd sort of go, "OK. Nice work if you can get it." So it was so satisfying going to these little openings despite the fact that I was kind of largely ignored or humiliated, but it was actually fun going to the openings, so I decided that I wanted to get the people in my office who had worked on these projects, get the illustrators and photographers, and I said, why don't we rent a van and drive around the five boroughs of New York and see how many we could hit at one time. And eventually there were going to be 60 of these libraries, so we probably got to see maybe half a dozen in one long day. And the best thing of all was meeting these librarians who kind of were running these, took possession of these places like their private stage upon which they were invited to mesmerize their students and bring the books to life, and it was just this really exciting experience for all of us to actually see these things in action. So we spent a long day doing this and we were in the very last library. It was still winter, because it got dark early, and the librarian says, "I'm about to close down. So really nice having you here. Hey, wait a second, do you want to see how I turn off the lights?" I'm like, "OK." And she said, "I have this special way that I do it." And then she showed me. What she did was she turned out every light one by one by one by one, and the last light she left on was the light that illuminated the kids' faces, and she said, "That's the last light I turn off every night, because I like to remind myself why I come to work."

  "ใช่ ผมทำมันเอง" และพวกเขาจะพูดประมาณว่า "โอเค งานดีมากถ้าคุณเข้าใจมัน" ครับ มันน่าเบิกบานใจมาก ที่ได้ไปงานเปิดตัวเล็ก ๆ พวกนี้ แม้ว่าผมมักจะถูกเมินหรือหัวเราะเยาะ แต่มันจริง ๆ แล้ว มันสนุกครับที่ได้ไปงานเปิดตัว ดังนั้นผมจึงตัดสินใจว่า ผมอยากพาคนในออฟฟิศของผม ที่ทำโครงการเหล่านี้ ทั้งนักวาดภาพประกอบและนักถ่ายภาพ และผมพูดว่า ทำไมเราไม่เช่ารถตู้ และขับรอบ ๆ เขตเมือง ทั้งห้าเมืองในนิวยอร์ก และดูว่าเราจะไปได้กี่ที่ในครั้งหนึ่ง ๆ และท้ายที่สุดแล้ว มันจะมีห้องสมุดประมาณ 60 แห่ง ถ้าเราใช้เวลาทั้งวัน เราน่าจะไปเยี่ยมได้ประมาณหกแห่ง และสิ่งที่ดีที่สุดคือ การไปพบเหล่าบรรณารักษ์ทั้งหลาย ผู้ซึ่งบริหารที่เหล่านี้ คอยดูแลสถานที่เหล่านี้ เฉกเช่นว่าพวกมันเป็นสถานที่ส่วนตัว ที่พวกเขาได้รับเชิญมา ให้พวกนักเรียนได้ดื่มด่ำ และทำให้หนังสือมีชีวิตชีวา และมันก็คือประสบการณ์ที่น่าตื่นเต้น สำหรับพวกเราทุกคน ที่จะเห็นสิ่งเหล่านี้ออกมาเป็นรูปธรรม ฉะนั้น เราใช้เวลาทั้งวันในการทำสิ่งนี้ และเราก็อยู่ในห้องสมุดที่สุดท้าย มันยังเป็นช่วงฤดูหนาวเพราะมันมืดเร็ว และบรรณารักษ์ก็พูดว่า "ฉันกำลังจะปิดอยู่พอดี แต่ดีมากเลยที่คุณอยู่ที่นี่ เฮ้ รอสักครู่นะ คุณอยากเห็นไหม ว่าฉันปิดไฟยังไง" ผมก็แบบ "โอเค" และเธอก็พูดว่า "ฉันมีวิธีปิดไฟแบบพิเศษนะ" และจากนั้นเธอก็แสดงให้ผมดู และสิ่งที่เธอทำคือเธอปิดไฟทุกดวง ทีละดวง ทีละดวง และไฟดวงสุดท้ายที่เธอเหลืออยู่ คือไฟที่ฉายแสงไปที่หน้าของเด็ก ๆ และเธอพูดว่า "นั่นเป็นไฟดวงสุดท้าย ที่ฉันเหลือไว้ทุกคืน เพราะฉันอยากเตือนตัวเองว่า เพราะอะไรฉันถึงมาทำงานที่นี่"

So when I started this whole thing, remember, it was just about designing that logo and being clever, come up with a new name? The unintended consequence here, which I would like to take credit for and like to think I can think through the experience to that extent, but I can't. I was just focused on a foot ahead of me, as far as I could reach with my own hands. Instead, way off in the distance was a librarian who was going to find the chain of consequences that we had set in motion, a source of inspiration so that she in this case could do her work really well. 40,000 kids a year are affected by these libraries. They've been happening for more than 10 years now, so those librarians have kind of turned on a generation of children to books and so it's been a thrill to find out that sometimes unintended consequences are the best consequences.

  ครับ ตอนที่ผมเริ่มงานทั้งหมดนี้ จำได้ไหม มันเป็นแค่การออกแบบโลโก้ และทำให้ฉลาดไว้ พร้อมกับคิดชื่อใหม่ ใช่ไหมครับ นี่คือผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ได้จงใจ ซึ่งผมอยากจะยกความดีความชอบให้กับตัวเอง และผมคิดว่าผมสามารถคิด ผ่านประสบการณ์ในลักษณะนั้นได้ แต่ว่าผมไม่สามารกทำได้ ผมแค่จดจ่ออยู่กับเบื้องหน้า ที่ไกลพอที่ผมจะสามารถเอื้อมถึง แทนที่จะเป็นอย่างนั้น ระยะที่ไกลกว่านั้น คือบรรณารักษ์ ผู้ที่ได้เจอห่วงโซ่ของผลลัพธ์ ที่พวกเราได้สานต่อให้เดินหน้า แหล่งของแรงบันดาลใจ ฉะนั้นในกรณีนี้ เธอสามารถทำงานของเธอได้อย่างดีเยี่ยม เด็ก 40,000 คนต่อปี ได้รับอิทธิพลจากบรรณารักษ์เหล่านี้ เป็นสิ่งที่เกิดขึ้นมานานกว่า 10 ปีแล้วตอนนี้ ดังนั้นบรรณารักษ์เหล่านี้ ได้สร้างยุคของเด็กกับหนังสือ และมันจึงน่าตื่นเต้นที่จะค้นพบว่า บางครั้งผลลัพธ์ที่ไม่ได้จงใจนั้น เป็นผลลัพธ์ที่ดีที่สุด

Thank you very much.   ขอบคุณมากครับ

 

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